Menu ENN Search

Regional humanitarian challenges in the Sahel

News

Summary of research*

Location: The Sahel

What we know: The Sahel is currently in complex crisis fuelled by conflict, climate change and weak governance. 

What this article adds: A recent case study of regional humanitarian challenges in the Sahel, informed by visits to Mali, Niger and Senegal, identifies major shortcomings in the humanitarian system as currently organised. Competition rather than collaboration characterises the humanitarian/development relationship. Humanitarian architecture is complex, duplicative and bogged down in coordination. Conflict is the dominant view of the region by donors; increased security measures pose challenges to operations. Large aid agencies are increasingly not operational, with energies diverted to reporting and accountability to donors, rather than beneficiaries. National agencies are operationally significant but lack power within the aid dynamic. Solutions are available, but political will is currently lacking.

Despite impressive growth and institutionalisation, the humanitarian system is facing a crisis. According to a recent report on humanitarian challenges in the Sahel region, the humanitarian system risks being outpaced by new threats and vulnerabilities linked to conflict, technology and natural disasters. The authors assert that the system is struggling to adapt to the social and political changes spawned by globalisation, constrained by the way the humanitarian system is organised with a framework for decision-making that risks becoming obsolete.

Recent crises in Afghanistan, Somalia, Haiti, Sri Lanka and Pakistan as well as current emergencies – Syria, South Sudan, Central African Republic, among other less visible crises – raise questions about the very foundations of humanitarianism. The authors argue that unless urgent steps are taken, humanitarian action will lose its relevance as a global system for saving and protecting the lives of at-risk populations. The report identifies areas where, given the political will, immediate improvements could be introduced in order to make the humanitarian system more effective in responding to current crises and disasters.

As part of its analysis of the current humanitarian system and its strengths and weaknesses, the Feinstein International Center (FIC) at Tufts University has produced a series of case studies that analyse blockages and game changers affecting humanitarian action in recent crises. This study focuses on the Sahel and is one of four case studies developed for the Planning from the Future study, conducted in collaboration with Kings College, London and the Humanitarian Policy Group at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI).

The Sahel

Until the early 2000s, the Sahel was on the margins of geopolitical interest and humanitarian action and debate. The African region stretches in a 4,000km band from Senegal on the west coast to Chad in the east, encompassing Senegal, the Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The Sahel countries share a French colonial heritage (apart from the Gambia) and features of a common currency and lingua franca.

This report, based on field visits to Mali, Niger and Senegal, describes how these issues are playing out across the Sahel and discusses the implications for humanitarian action. It raises important questions for the future of humanitarian action in the Sahel and beyond. The authors introduce the history of the region and nature of the current crisis, with details on major stakeholders – an array of the state and non-state actors, including conflict actors and transnational criminal networks. The largest multilateral donors to the Sahel are the United States and the European Union, with the 2012 drought marking a sudden increase in humanitarian funding for the region.

Major findings, themes and lessons learned

Findings are organised around the concept of  “game changers” (factors that emerged from the crisis or were relatively new, and for which the humanitarian community is ill-prepared to deal with), and “blockages” (either things that are blocking humanitarian action in a given context, including long-standing problems); some findings contain elements of both.

The main findings focus on the Sahel (and more generally, West Africa) as a relatively neglected and peripheral region of intervention for aid, compared to other global crises. This is reflected in smaller budgets and observed differences in professionalisation of humanitarian staff (the region is considered a “less prestigious” posting with limited circulation of staff outside the Francophone “pocket”).

Problems have tended to be viewed in developmental rather than humanitarian terms, with the chronic crisis perceived as a “failure” in development, thus lacking humanitarian ownership and innovation as seen in other regions. This fuels the uncomfortable coexistence between development and humanitarian action, whereby the Sahel’s main problems (food security, malnutrition and epidemics) can be framed in both terms.

The chronic nature of the situation makes it a complex humanitarian environment. The humanitarian situation is understood to be in constant expansion and polarisation, with local actors only playing a minimal role. Local non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are used to access insecure areas but not treated as “equals”. While international players raise issues of accountability and capability of local agencies, national NGOs voice frustrations regarding bureaucracy and challenges in accessing international humanitarian funds.

Large aid agencies are losing their “field craft” as they are increasingly not operational, with energies diverted to reporting and accountability to donors, rather than beneficiaries. Coordination and transaction costs are high, since inter-agency dynamics absorb large amounts of human and financial resources. Official coordination mechanisms involve the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)-mediated clusters, UNHCR (refugees) and a parallel ECHO (European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations) coordination system; sub-groups/fora/working groups are proliferating partly in response to inadequacies in existing systems.

Key lessons include:

The report concludes that solutions are available to make the system more effective, but political will is lacking. The humanitarian system in the Sahel, as elsewhere, is becoming more remote and functional to the needs of the main players, rather than the populations it purports to serve.

 

*Donini, Antonio and Scalettaris, Giulia. 2016. Case Study: Regional Humanitarian Challenges in the Sahel. Planning from the Future, Component 2. The Contemporary Humanitarian Landscape: Malaise, Blockages and Game Changers. Feinstein International Center. Medford: Tufts University. fic.tufts.edu/assets/Sahel-case-study-Final-09-05-16.pdf

 

 

More like this

FEX: Global Humanitarian Response 2017

Summary of overview1 A recent global humanitarian overview by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA) reports that, for 2017,...

FEX: Nutrition, resilience and the genesis of AGIR

By Jan Eijkenaar Jan Eijkenaar has been ECHO's Technical Assistant in support of a resilience approach and the roll out of the AGIR Alliance from September 2012 to April 2015,...

Resource: Early warning early action: Mechanisms for rapid decision making

Drought preparedness and response in the arid and semi-arid lands of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda, and in the East Africa Region Humanitarian and development partners alike...

FEX: Meeting cross-sectoral needs of Syrian refugees and host communities in Lebanon

By Leah Campbell This summary is based on a longer written case study written by Leah Campbell for CaLP1. A video presenting the programme is also available2. If you...

FEX: Regional conference on responding to challenges of undernutrition in West Africa

By Christelle Huré, Regional Advocacy Adviser, Action contre la Faim West Africa Regional Office In June 2015, Action Contre la Faim (ACF), in partnership with the SUN...

FEX: The potential role of local academia in protracted crises – the example of the American University of Beirut

By Amelia Reese Masterson, Hala Ghattas and Fouad M Fouad Amelia Reese Masterson was a Visiting Fellow at the Center for Research on Population and Health at the American...

FEX: Syria INGO Regional Forum (SIRF)

This profile of SIRF is based on ENN interviews with Misty Buswell and Rob Drouen. Misty Buswell is a member of the SIRF Board and co-chairs the SIRF Advocacy Working Group....

FEX: Mainstreaming human nutrition in livestock interventions: lessons learnt from a capacity-building workshop for the Sahel region

By Paula Dominguez-Salas, Domitille Kauffman, Christophe Breyne and Pablo Alarcon Paula Dominguez-Salas is a research fellow in human nutrition working in nutrition-sensitive...

FEX: From Kigali to Istanbul the long way round – personal reflections on 20-years of humanitarian accountability

By Andy Featherstone Andy Featherstone is an independent consultant with over 20-years of experience in strategic and operational management of international programme, policy...

FEX: ENN’s perspective on the nutrition response in the Syria crisis

By Carmel Dolan, Marie McGrath and Jeremy Shoham Unless otherwise stated, referenced articles feature in Field Exchange 48. While the ENN's role is first and foremost to...

FEX: Community video in the Sahel: from pilot to scale

By Alix Harou, Marjolein Moreaux and Leanne Dougherty Alix Harou has a background in national and international public health and currently works as a Social Behaviour Change...

FEX: Artificial feeding in emergencies: experiences from the ongoing Syrian crisis

By Suzanne Mboya Suzanne Mboya is a consultant nutritionist. In 2014 she completed a sixth month mission supporting the Syrian crisis IYCF-E response through a partnership...

FEX: The situation of older refugees and refugees with disabilities, injuries, and chronic diseases in the Syria crisis

By Lydia de Leeuw Lydia de Leeuw is the Regional Inclusion Programme Manager for both HelpAge International and Handicap International in the Syria crisis. She has extensive...

FEX: Agency Profile

Name: International Rescue Committee (IRC) Year founded: 1933 Address: 122, East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10168, USA CEO: David Miliband Phone: + 1 212 551 3000 No. of HQ...

FEX: Impact of food aid on two communities in Niger

By Sarah McKune and Nicole Hood Dr Sarah McKune is the Director of Public Health Programmes at the University of Florida. She has worked in the West African Sahel since 2004,...

FEX: From the editor

Group of women participating in a focus group discussion This is another bumper issue of Field Exchange, with eight field articles and just under 20 research summaries. On the...

Resource: Bangladesh Nutrition Cluster: A case in preparedness

This case study is one of six case studies produced through a year-long collaboration in 2015 between ENN and the Global Nutrition Cluster (GNC) to capture and disseminate...

FEX: Famine fears in northeast Nigeria as Boko Haram fight rages

Research snapshot1 A recent report in The Lancet describes the situation in northeast Nigeria where, amid continued fighting, over five million people are now going hungry....

FEX: Start Network

Name Start Network Address Start Network, c/o Save the Children, 1 St John's Lane, London EC1M 4AR, UK Email info@spring-nutrition.org Web...

FEX: UN and INGO experiences of coordination in Jordan

By Alex Tyler and Jack Byrne Alex Tyler is Inter-Sector Coordinator for UNHCR Jordan Jack Byrne is Country Director for IRC and Chair of the INGO Forum for Jordan As of July...

Close

Reference this page

Donini, Antonio and Scalettaris, Giulia (2016). Regional humanitarian challenges in the Sahel. Field Exchange 53, November 2016. p61. www.ennonline.net/fex/53/challengesinthesahel