Menu ENN Search

PAHO/WHO Guiding principles for Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Child

Author: PAHO/ WHO
Year: 2001
Resource type: Field tool

A review of feeding guidelines promoted by various national and international organizations has shown that there are inconsistencies in the specific recommendations for feeding infants and young children (Dewey). Some of the feeding guidelines are based more on tradition and speculation than on scientific evidence, or are far more prescriptive than is necessary regarding issues such as the order of foods introduced and the amounts of specific foods to be given. To avoid confusion, a set of unified, scientifically based guidelines is needed, which can be adapted to local feeding practices and conditions.

The guidelines described herein were developed from discussions at several technical consultations and documents on complementary feeding (WHO/UNICEF, 1998; WHO/UNICEF Technical Consultation on Infant and Young Child Feeding, 2000; WHO Global Consultation on Complementary Feeding, 2001; Academy for Educational Development, 1997; Dewey and Brown, 2002). The target group for these guidelines is breastfed children during the first two years of life. This document does not cover specific feeding recommendations for non-breastfed children, although many of the guidelines are also appropriate for such children (except for the recommendations regarding meal frequency and nutrient content of complementary foods).

Appropriate diets for children who are not breastfed (such as those of HIV-positive mothers who choose not to breastfeed), often referred to as “replacement feeding”, are the subject of other documents (Guiding principles of feeding non-breastfed children 6-24 months, WHO 2005; available in this resource library) WHO/UNICEF HIV and Infant Feeding Counseling: A training Course, 2000).

It should also be noted that the guidelines herein apply to normal, term infants (this includes low birth weight infants born at > 37 weeks gestation). Infants or children recovering from acute malnutrition or serious illnesses may need specialized feeding, which is covered by clinical manuals (for example, the WHO manual “Management of the Child with a Serious Infection or Severe Malnutrition”, 2000). Preterm infants may also need special feeding. However, the guidelines in this document can be used as the basis for developing recommendations on complementary feeding for these subgroups.

Download

guiding-principles-compfeeding-breastfed-paho-who-2001(1).pdf (PDF, 6.0mb)

More like this

FEX: Artificial feeding in emergencies: experiences from the ongoing Syrian crisis

By Suzanne Mboya Suzanne Mboya is a consultant nutritionist. In 2014 she completed a sixth month mission supporting the Syrian crisis IYCF-E response through a partnership...

FEX: Contributing to the Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies (IYCF-E) response in the Philippines: a local NGO perspective

By Romelei Camiling-Alfonso, Donna Isabel S. Capili, Katherine Ann V. Reyes, A.M. Francesca Tatad and Maria Asuncion Silvestre Romelei Camiling-Alfonso has worked for the...

Resource: Complementary feeding frequency - the reality: Case Study for the IYCF GIFA/ENN Project

Two case studies from: INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING IN EMERGENCIES GIFA/ENN PROJECT (2003) Researchers: Mary Corbett (Evaluation of Module 1) and Marie McGrath (Collation of...

FEX: Challenges of IYCF and psychosocial support in Lebanon

By Juliette Seguin Juliette Seguin is currently Health and Nutrition Coordinator for ACF Lebanon. She has been working with ACF since 2011 in Haiti, Guinea, Bangladesh, Turkey...

FEX: Letters

Dear ENN, If there is one thing that we have learnt from the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak it is that regardless of infection status, Ebola comes bringing bad...

FEX: Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Recurring Challenges

Published Report By Marie McGrath The importance of infant feeding in emergencies has been highlighted during recent emergencies in countries such as Iraq and Bosnia, where...

FEX: Research Snapshots

The following provides a short summary of each of these important research studies. A fuller summary of each can be found online at www.ennonline.net/fex Inpatient management...

FEX: Infant and young child feeding support in Lebanon: strengthening the national system

By Pressila Darjani and Linda Shaker Berbari Pressila Derjany is the Infant and Young Child Coordinator at IOCC. She has a B.Sc. in Nutrition and Dietetics. She joined IOCC...

FEX: Responding to nutrition gaps in Jordan in the Syrian Refugee Crisis: Infant and Young Child Feeding education and malnutrition treatment

By Gabriele Fänder and Megan Frega Gabriele Fänder is the Regional Health and Nutrition Advisor with Medair in the Syria Crisis Response Programme, based in Amman....

FEX: Action to improve infant and young child feeding in nutrition and child health programmes

A mother prepares porridge from soy-fortified bulgur in Guatemala Proceedings of meeting1 Over 50 researchers, programme implementers, infant feeding experts and...

en-net: Loi BMS 2013 du Bangladesh - Clarification demandée

The BMS Law 2013 states that “within the scope of sub-section (1), among others the following things particularly shall not be done, namely… to donate or...

FEX: Emerging cases of malnutrition amongst IDPs in Tal Abyad district, Syria

By Maartje Hoetjes, Wendy Rhymer, Lea Matasci-Phelippeau, Saskia van der Kam Maartje Hoetjes is a Medical member of the MSF emergency team, currently working in South Sudan....

FEX: En-net update

By Tamsin Walters, en-net moderator Over the past four months1, 32 questions have been posted on en-net, generating 69 responses. Two upcoming trainings have been advertised...

FEX: Derivation of nutrient requirements for disaster-affected populations - Sphere Project 2011

Summary of research1 Location: Global What we know: The Sphere Handbook defines minimum standards and indicators for assessing humanitarian responses, including food and...

FEX: IYCF-Friendly Framework pilot in Jordan, Bangladesh and Kenya

By Bushra Rashid, Nicki Connell and Caroline Wilkinson Bushra Rashid is working as a Nutrition Advisor in the Humanitarian Surge Team of Save the Children UK. She has been...

FEX: Strategy Meeting on Infant Feeding in Emergencies

Summary of international meeting Media/communication Working Group in the foreground and Implementation/Capacity building Working Group in the background On 1st and 2nd...

FEX: WHO Technical Consultation and Update on HIV and Infant Feeding

The Report of a Technical Consultation on Prevention of HIV Infections in Pregnant Women, Mothers and their Infants and Infant Feeding and an Update of recommendations1 is now...

FEX: Infant Feeding Practices: Observations from Macedonia and Kosovo

As a result of concerns expressed about the usage of infant formula and a need for more information regarding weaning practices during and after the conflict in Kosovo, Action...

FEX: Putting IFE guidance into practice: operational challenges in Myanmar

By Victoria Sibson Victoria Sibson has been the emergency nutrition adviser for Save the Children UK since April 2007, with a focus on treatment of acute malnutrition and...

FEX: Retrospective qualitative analysis of an infant and young child feeding intervention among refugees in Europe

Summary of MSc thesis By Alexandra Svoboda Alexandra Svoboda is a student on the MSc Nutrition for Global Health course at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine...

Close

Reference this page

PAHO/ WHO (2001). PAHO/WHO Guiding principles for Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Child. www.ennonline.net/compfeedingprinciples