Podcast transcript –The Role of the REACH initiative in the implementation of SUN in Burkina Faso
Resource type: Other
- Ambarka Youssoufane (AY): Regional Knowledge Management Specialist for West and Central Africa with ENN
- Madame Bertine Ouaro (BO): Director of Nutrition and SUN Government Focal Point in the Ministry of Public Health of Burkina Faso
- Dr. Maimouna Guero (MG): International Facilitator of the REACH initiative in Burkina Faso
- Mr. Nicolas Bidault (NB): Co- Coordinator of the UN Network for SUN and the REACH initiative
AY: Hello listeners. Welcome to the ENN Nutrition Exchange podcast. I am Ambarka Youssoufane, the Regional Knowledge Management Specialist for West and Central Africa with ENN. Today I am with Mrs. Bertine Ouaro, Director of Nutrition and the SUN focal point in the Burkina Faso Ministry of Health, Dr. Guero Maimouna, International Facilitator of the REACH initiative in Burkina Faso and Mr. Nicolas Bidault, deputy coordinator of the UN networks for the SUN movement and the REACH initiative. Hello.
BO, MG, NB: Hello
AY: You recently published a joint report in Nutrition Exchange 7 on the added value of the REACH initiative in implementing SUN in Burkina Faso. We'd like to discuss this article in a bit more detail with you. Mrs Bertine Ouaro, Burkina Faso joined the SUN movement in 2011. What was the nutrition situation in Burkina Faso like before 2011, I mean, what sort of structures, strategies and policies had been implemented at that time?
BO: OK. Thank you Mr. Ambarka. Yes, in 2011, the Ministry for Health in Burkina joined SUN and now hosts the SUN Government Focal Point. A nutrition policy had been developed in 2007, but it wasn't genuinely multi-sectoral. It was only multi-sectoral to a certain extent - the sectors covered weren't empowered to improve nutrition There was also the National Nutrition Council, the multi-sectoral platform set up in 2008 to bring together several sectors and NGOs already working on nutrition. There wasn't much dialogue, however, between the various sectors connected with nutrition. Work was really only in the very early stages when the National Council first started to meet. It currently meets twice a year. Whilst a multi-sectoral approach had been outlined, it wasn't really evident in practice. We also had a strategic plan for 2010-2015, so it had been developed some time before Burkina joined the SUN movement. This strategic plan wasn't multi-sectoral either, because it didn't implement any activities or empower any of the sectors. All of the previous activities were sector-specific activities. And the nutritional situation was still severe. There were many cases of stunted growth. At that time, weight was the most commonly used indicator, and almost 40% were underweight, 38% if you go back to 2009. The situation was, therefore, much more serious than it is now. There's a lot I could say to answer your first question.
AY : Thank you Bertine. Perhaps you would like to add something Dr. Maimouna?
MG : Thank you Ambarka. Yes, as Bertine said, REACH hadn’t been introduced yet at that time, but if you analyse the nutritional situation, you can see that malnutrition levels fell during the period before REACH was introduced and current figures also show a drop in mortality rates for children under the age of 5. That's what I would add.
AY : Okay, thank you Dr. Maimouna. Mrs Bertine, you also said that several structures and frameworks were already in place well before Burkina joined SUN in 2011. What other additional structures or networks have been set up since Burkina joined the SUN movement?
BO: OK. Since Burkina joined the SUN movement, the National Council for Dialogue and Nutrition has been used as the SUN platform for multi-sectoral activities. It started to involve other structures that hadn't been members at the start. They were included in the platform to involve multi-sectoral stakeholders better. Private-sector stakeholders, for example, were also included. Civil society involvement has also been extended. More NGOs are now involved in the Council because we invited more nutrition actors to join this multi-sectoral platform. There weren't any official international networks similar to the SUN network either. This started shortly afterwards. We started to set up networks in 2013. We did that because there weren't really any international networks like SUN International, so we started to set up networks in 2014. Preparations started in 2013, and by 2014 a civil society network had been launched with the support from ACF. The UN network was also set up. It is supported by other partners and REACH, and takes care of coordination activities and links with all of the UN agencies. We also set up the private sector network last year and it already has an operational office. And we also have the academic and research network, for example, which also has a cost of implementation, but it is not yet finalised. And we have already had a few meetings to start thinking in earnest, to see what mandate could be given to these networks in the academic sector. So this network hasn't yet been finalised.
AY: You talk of the establishment of the multi-stakeholder platform through the National Nutrition Council. Can you tell us briefly about the operation of this multi-stakeholder platform?
BO : It must be said that this multi-stakeholder platform is a forum which brings together several sensitive and specific nutrition sectors, chiefly food security, social protection, education, even higher education, scientific research, the advancement of women, everything to do with water, hygiene, and sanitation, and the Ministry of Commerce is also a member. These are key ministries that have a contribution to nutrition. Other ministries are also members of the group, such as the Ministry of Economy and Finance, and also the Ministry for Animal Resources, which is an important ministry. When we talk about multisectoriality, we have to take a really broad approach, and as SUN says, involve all the stakeholders, not necessarily in the field of nutrition, but who are really interested in nutrition and can make a significant contribution. This platform meets twice a year, every six months, in June and December. The Minister of Health is currently President of this National Council with three Vice-Presidents, who are the Minister of Agriculture and Food Security, the Minister of Social Affairs and the Minister responsible for Economy and Finance. And these three structures, these three ministries are Vice Presidents in order to underscore the platform's multisectoral nature, even if the Minister of Health is the President. The conclusions of the meetings are recorded in a report, which is shared with participants before the next meeting.
AY: One of the networks that Ms. Bertine mentioned, SUN Focal Point, is a UN and REACH network. So, in what year did Burkina Faso join REACH and what is the role of REACH in Burkina Faso?
MG : OK. Thank you, Ambarka. To be precise, REACH was launched in Burkina Faso in August 2014, and the role of REACH in Burkina Faso was, in a general way, to support the government's efforts to strengthen the governance of nutrition, and above all to support the scaling-up of interventions with high nutritional impact, so it was very much a support mechanism, an enhancement of activities taking place at a government level. And also, the role of REACH is to help coordinate effectively between its signatory agencies, so perhaps as a reminder, REACH is an initiative of four agencies: the FAO, the WHO, the WFP and UNICEF. So, more specifically for Burkina Faso, we have at any rate supported many activities, among others the multi-sectoral coordination you referred to just now. The first series of activities that REACH started in Burkina Faso was, above all, in order to understand the situation, the context, and to that end we completed many exploratory analyses to understand, firstly, the nutritional situation, the trends, what the nutritional trends are by stratifying them according to region and also by stratifying them according to target group to really facilitate understanding, and also by looking more closely, by region, at what the main determinants of malnutrition in Burkina Faso are, so it has allowed us to better understand the situation and see, it has helped a lot in setting priorities. We also accompanied the government in the development of the policy paper, so the multi-sectoral strategic plan on nutrition, and we accompanied the review of the national nutrition policy. We also supported the development of a strategy for advocacy and communication. At present, the strategic plan and the documents I have mentioned to you are being developed. Just last week, a finalization workshop was held, involving, in fact all the sectors were present, even at a regional level, and I must say that what is interesting in Burkina Faso is that all these documents were prepared by a multi-sectoral committee. As regards the current multisectoral coordination, Bertine has spoken at length about the National Council of Nutrition in Burkina Faso, and we have supported the work of this Council, REACH has actively participated in reviewing tests and reflecting on how the Board works and I think that discussions are still ongoing in relation to the institutional integration of nutrition, policy integration, administrative integration and technical integration in the country. As part of the coordination, we support the SUN Focal Point, as already mentioned, in relation to the implementation of the networks and in collaboration with REACH, we have implemented an exchange framework for these networks and we have a 2016 work plan. We have just evaluated this plan in 2016 and developed a 2017 work plan for the networks. It must be said that REACH does not stop there. We also participate in collaborations between different networks, so we have working platforms between for instance including the civil society network. In terms of the advocacy component, for example, we all have one goal, advocacy, and we work together on this issue, and for 2017 I think the networks will discover whether there might also be areas to collaborate on with other networks such as the network of donors or even the academic research network. So, in short, that's the support that REACH offers the government and at United Nations level.
AY: It is clear that REACH supports both the SUN movement in Burkina Faso and works itself on meeting the objectives of SUN and, of course, Burkina Faso's nutrition policy. So, considering this substantial support, I would ask, Mr. Nicolas, what advice can you give to other countries, particularly to those who are not members or who have not joined the REACH initiative? What advice can you give them so they can perhaps benefit from the experience or the support of REACH?
NB: Thank you, Ambarka. Yes, precisely, as Dr. Maimouna explained, the REACH support is really support for the SUN Focal Point, for the implementation of the SUN process through supporting people, experts such as Dr. Maimouna, as well as assisting with analytical tools and capacity building tools, and I should also mention that REACH is supported by a secretariat which is based at WFP in Rome and which remotely supports the implementation of the work, the work of REACH facilitators. So there are, we have requests from countries for REACH support. So it is important for there to be agreement between the partner countries, the SUN Focal Point, the UN agencies and donors to decide how to finance this support and to agree on the activities. From there, a request is made to the REACH secretariat which initiates, let's say, a preparatory mission in the applicant country to precisely refine, contextualize and really create the perfect work plan for the country to achieve its goals. So that's the approach we use. For countries that don't find funding at local level, we try to work out with regional partners, global partners, how to support the responses to requests for REACH support, and in particular we work closely with the secretariat of the SUN movement in Geneva to meet those needs. There you have it. I think that explains the REACH application process.
AY: Precisely, one type of support that REACH has provided in Burkina Faso, for example, is its development of the common results framework. What precisely did the REACH support involve in that exercise?
MG: Thank you, Ambarka. Indeed, as you said, we have supported the development of the common results framework in Burkina Faso, and so, to return to what I said earlier, this is a process of clarification. So all of the exploratory analyses that I mentioned have contributed to the development of this common results framework. How was the process carried out? So before even starting the process of the common framework of results, an agreement was reached at the Ministry of Health and in the other sectors in order to have a common understanding of what we want and with respect to defining the common results framework; it was a very, very important step for further work, and therefore throughout the process, in choosing the priority objective, in choosing the priority interventions, everything was done by consensus and therefore each time REACH was trying to support, how can we say, all that, all of the contributions of the other sectors in the process of developing the common results framework. So I was saying, the mobilization of the results, and therefore REACH, supported the organization of mini workshops within each sector. And with the support of the REACH administration office, we also greatly contributed to the sharing of experiences and good practices of another country, how, in other countries, these items we imported also made it possible to influence strategically the preparation of these documents, the common results framework. So I think that's it, as I was saying earlier, what helped a lot is the role played by REACH and especially the analysis tools and various analyses whose mapping of courses of action and actors was a key element in the development of the common results framework.
AY : Yes, actually, we realize that REACH really supports closely the establishment of some key structures in the road map of the SUN movement. So, Mrs Bertine, can we say that REACH and the SUN movement are complementary, at least in terms of Burkina Faso?
BO: Yes, Mr. Ambarka. I would say yes without hesitation because I think that REACH and SUN are indeed complementary. Actually, I think we can consider REACH to be the operational arm of the SUN, because everything that REACH does makes it possible to operationalize the main recommendations of the SUN, truly provides support to the operationalization of major stocks, important reflections in the SUN with respect to multisectoriality, and really the involvement of the sectors, accountability really, and all that REACH does, and even brings as support for SUN's focal point really enables it to move forward in everything that the SUN recommends and therefore I answer yes to this question without hesitation.
AY: Going back to the common results framework, what are the main priorities of this common framework of results?
BO: I must say that this common framework that is multisectoral aims to improve the implementation of sensitive interventions and specific interventions. And the common framework really wants a dashboard, a monitoring framework, an evaluation framework that will allow to witness the progress toward multisectoriality in Burkina. So he targeted an area of ??intervention that we have pared down to really achieve fewer than 49 interventions that are divided by sector and each sensitive and specific sector constitutes a dimension. So we have all of the interventions that aim to improve and strengthen food security in connection with nutrition, the dimension that aims at social protection in connection with nutrition, water, hygiene and sanitation, linked to nutrition, and thus, everything related to trade also constitutes an integrated part of food security. There are also actions to be implemented by the private sector, and of course, the dimension that considers health interventions sensitive to nutrition, and finally the specific nutrition interventions which also constitute a dimension. So we can say that this framework is actually around seven areas, or sectors.
AY : So, yes indeed, I really have a question about how the sectors integrate nutrition and how the specific area of ??nutrition is also multisectoral, since I see that with the common frame of results and the country's joining the SUN movement, it has developed a multisectoral approach in Burkina Faso. So specifically, how is multisectoriality set up?
BO: So yes, Ambarka, so I continue. In fact, each sector is responsible for the planned activities because they were defined by these sectors as Maimouna said, through the support that REACH has provided us to implement, to undertake sectoral workshops with all of the actors in a given sector, and define the interventions that concern this sector. So each sector is responsible for implementation of the defined actions and the indicators are set to make it possible to provide information on the status of implementation and the status of achievement of results for the intervention in question, and thus in this way the sectors will themselves be responsible for implementing these interventions and for reporting on their progress. And in terms of funding, there are interventions that are already established, which are already in this sector's program and they will therefore be made using the funding provided there for this purpose. Now, where there are other funding needs to be able to complete the procedure, this is where advocacy is done so that those sectors may be able to implement these interventions and provide information to them. There you have it. And so there are contact persons in the sectors who are really responsible for ensuring that these interventions are implemented and for providing information in this regard at follow-up and evaluation.
MG: To complete the Director, it should be said that the interventions that have been made in the common results framework are currently being incorporated into the plans of sectors to take into account that, in the search for funding and in the implementation. This is an important point.
AY: Absolutely, absolutely. And indeed, I would ask, what now are the next steps now that the common results framework has been developed and validated? What will be the next steps for the different actors involved in nutrition in Burkina? Mr Nicolas?
NB: I think that once the common results framework has been developed, it is really just as Dr Maimouna said, it is working with sectors in adapting their plans to integrate nutrition properly, through the use of the common results framework and work with them in the implementation of those results. Another important element is, of course, mobilization, so programmatic mobilization at sectoral level and then financial mobilization, especially once the common results framework has been developed, once the plan has been developed, mobilize partners precisely for these plans to be funded with good efficiency.
AY: Actually, speaking of financial mobilization, how is it that, in the case of Burkina Faso, this financial mobilization will be implemented or operationalized for the implementation of selected measures?
BO: Okay. In the case of Burkina, having developed the common framework and also following the development of the strategic multisectoral plan which will take into account all the interventions of the common framework that will. We plan to organize a large meeting of all partners and donors around this great document when it is adopted in order to make it more visible and request the contribution of different donors and also the contribution of the state in the implementation of this plan. And it is true that it is far from certain, but we know that there is a lot of interest at the moment, and we think that there will be a mobilization around this plan all the same It is also true that, as has been done in the Ivory Coast, the round table there really took place to ensure that donors can also advocate for more resources to be able to accompany that plan and donors may, after this round table, advocate at their own level but also to the government to put pressure on the government so that the government can in any case increase resources for nutrition. There is already a budget line at the Ministry of Health, which has just been created, but it targets only for the moment the management of severe acute malnutrition through the purchase of therapeutic food.
AY: Yes, Dr Maimouna?
MG: Okay, I'm just going to sum up for the next step, REACH intends to support the government in assessing the needs for capacity-building, that is to say, the multisectoral strategic plan has been developed. Next, in the implementation of the multisectoral strategic plan, is to make an assessment to see that all capabilities are in the country to facilitate the implementation of the strategic plan, so we will support the government in this exercise very soon and also we intend to support the government in the establishment of a framework for monitoring and evaluation and especially experience sharing, so this is also something that we are now analyzing in order to support. These two points will be part of the next steps in the country.
AY: Thank you, Dr Maimouna. Mr Nicolas, do you have details to add in relation to resource mobilization?
NB: Yes, thank you, Ambarka. Yes, I think that what Mrs Bertine described is very, very clear, and very important. As mentioned in the global report on nutrition, it is important to increase investment in nutrition, not only by external donor investment but also domestic investment, national funding. The report talks about quadrupling external funding and tripling domestic funding. As Mrs Bertine said, Côte d’Ivoire has recently gone through this process where they mobilized, they knew and could mobilize at the highest level to fund their national plan. The result was very positive with specific mobilizations of funders in the plan, and I think the example of Côte d’Ivoire, the example that Burkina Faso is setting, through its plan and the mobilization, is going in the right direction. Other countries have approached us to specifically support these roundtables. They will be supported. It is truly important to ensure that countries have high-quality plans and that these plans are discussed openly with donors to ensure that they are funded well enough to have an impact for beneficiaries on the ground. Thank you.
AY: Thank you, Mr. Nicolas. I see many examples, textbook examples are considered, in particular that of Côte d’Ivoire, and I would also like to return to the example of Senegal which links back to what Mrs. Bertine was saying a moment ago. Indeed, in Senegal they have been able to take this approach with the government to continually increase the domestic budget for nutrition. Moreover, this issue is the subject of an article that will soon appear in Nutrition Exchange 7, an interview with the SUN Focal Point about the approach taken. So I don't know what your relationship is with Senegal and how you take into account this kind of experience?
BO : So it must be said through some large meetings we have been able to appreciate Senegal's excellence, most recently at the Global Nutrition Report, so the launch of this year in Burkina Faso in November, we really had a chance to learn, to share the expectations of Senegal which really gave a good presentation detailing a little of how it works, and its links with the Office of the Prime Minister for the coordination of nutrition and various interventions that they were able to implement and how they carried out monitoring and evaluation activities, it was truly very useful. We really want to continue to share this experience, continue to learn lessons and this means that we need to strengthen our communication across the board as well as our exchanges with Senegal. We did this at times, but I think that it is something which needs to be strengthened so we can better understand the lessons. Away from the large meetings, we should be able to act via other, simpler, channels between our two countries.
AY : Thank you. I would like to go back to Mr. Nicolas. You just mentioned how a country might approach a collaboration with the REACH initiative. I know that REACH is not intended to last indefinitely, it has a very limited timescale at country level. I would like to know, what are the prospects and what is the long-term approach of REACH beyond its presence at country level?
NB: Thank you, Ambarka. As you said, the REACH initiative has always been an initiative intended to end. And we can even say that this is where REACH gets its impact. That is, this is not an initiative that arrives in a country and is there to stay. This is truly a catalytic initiative, one that transfers, that builds the capacity to transfer skills with the government, one that builds confidence, but really one that strengthens the capacity of the government and multisectoral platforms. So really the REACH initiative, the early stages of REACH were planned over a commitment period of three years. We had an evaluation recently, last year, which recognized that three years in most cases is insufficient and which instead recommended a five-year commitment. So beyond the REACH support, there is of course the presence of United Nations agencies at country level, which are now officially organized in a United Nations SUN network for each SUN country, and it is clear that beyond the REACH support, technical support continues, from support for governance by United Nations agencies, both at multisectoral level through the network and at sectoral level through the work of each agency with their key ministries. So to summarize, as you said, it's intended to end, really a transfer with the government, through the work the REACH experts do day to day with the SUN Focal Point until the capacity is really in place, the transfer is done and that is followed by a continuation of the support of UN agencies at country level. There you have it.
AY: So yes, there is the transfer work at the level of the REACH experts with the SUN Focal Point, and we know SUN has just launched the second phase, the road map for the second phase of SUN. How does REACH intend to position its support relative to the roadmap?
NB: Yes, so as we said earlier, REACH is really complementary to the SUN movement. This is how it worked during the first phase of the SUN movement and it will continue to work this way in the second phase of the SUN movement. REACH is always present. There, I would say that a strength now is that the UN network, which is organized at the level of each SUN country with a network President who is generally a representative of one of the nutrition agencies active at country level and who is supported by the nutrition Focal Points of the different agencies, these networks are set up in every SUN country. So that's the strength that there was not really there before in this, say, structural organization of the SUN movement network in support of SUN. Now, REACH is a service offered by the United Nations system, so there is really now a clarification in the positioning of REACH in relation to the SUN movement, as a complement to the SUN movement because it is a service offered by the United Nations network. Within the United Nations system, we developed a 2016-2020 strategy that is fully aligned with the strategy of the SUN movement and for which the United Nations system supports the various elements of the strategy of the SUN movement through its strategy. So it supports the pillars for multi-sectoral governance of nutrition. The other consideration is that REACH, really being a provision of service, will also contribute to the reinforcement and implementation, if necessary, of other networks in the SUN movement, thus strengthening the multisectoral platform that also includes the movement of the United Nations network. That is to say we have the networks in place. They do not all have the same capacity to meet the needs of the country, so there is also this limited time for REACH to strengthen the capacity of the UN system to be a better partner at the government level. So that's what we saw in the second phase of the movement, really positioning REACH as a United Nations network service in countries where the model is adequate will strengthen the pillars of the strategy of the SUN movement in multi-sector governance, capacity building, advocacy with the tools that are available, but also in the implementation and installation of reinforcements from other networks including the United Nations system so that, at the end of this period of REACH support, the United Nations network itself is better able to respond independently and work with the Sun Focal Point, and as I said the other key ministries that are important in the implementation of national nutrition plans.
AY : Thank you Nicholas. We see that REACH is fully aligned, as you say, with the SUN movement's Strategy 2.0. One last question, thinking of all of our guests, what can we consider to be the added value, the success of the SUN movement in Burkina Faso after six years of implementation?
BO: First, I can say that joining SUN has increased the visibility of nutrition in Burkina Faso. It has even increased accountability vis-à-vis the state when it comes to nutrition. And we see that since we joined SUN, we have increased dialogue with the various sensitive and specific sectors. There was even a better understanding of nutrition in Burkina through dialogue. And adopting a multisectoral approach has become more operational, much more effective after joining SUN. It may be noted also that there was more excitement among other partners about working in nutrition. Many structures, groups that did not work in nutrition became interested in nutrition after this visibility that was created, and even if the actions are not quite clear, there are still some results when communities, even if they are small, it could be through nutrition interventions, and that's really commendable. And there are a lot of results and everything about communication has been enhanced through association networks, communicators who were very interested in nutrition after their membership in SUN, and it's really something something that we welcome. And awareness to improve nutrition in terms of key development interventions has been better understood by the state, so at the state level, the same argument can be made that it improved through membership in the SUN movement. And the commitments made by the state in the context of SUN make it so that the state needs to improve nutrition, strengthen, make it a higher priority to meet its commitments following SUN membership. We feel that this is something that should have been created if it had not existed.
AY : I'd say that SUN has fostered a favorable environment, empowering many stakeholders and allowing them to start a movement. Dr. Maimouna, can we say the REACH benefited from the positive environment the SUN movement fostered in Burkina Faso?
MG Yes, I would definitely agree. Before answering, however, I suspect Bertine neglected to mention the practices inspired by the SUN movement have not yet produced more funding from the national or state governments, or from partners. I think it's important to emphasize that point. We should also recognize planning is now much better in Burkina Faso. As I just noted, planning benefits from the participation of a diverse, multidisciplinary committee. This is another benefit that resulted from launching the SUN movement. Going back to your question, I'd agree that REACH found a positive setting because of SUN. Remember, however, that REACH also played a critical role. For example, it helped establish networks. Burkina joined the SUN movement in 2011, but networks only began to appear in the last two years. It's true that the situation was favorable, but REACH was essential to creating the national structures, planning, and mobilizing resources across Burkina Faso.
AY: Thank you, Dr. Maimouna. Mr. Nicolas Bidault, could you give us a last word?
NB: I think we should recogonize the efforts that many people have made across Burkina Faso. I'd like to acknowledge Madame Bertine, Director of Nutrition, whose work has been exemplary. We can see clearly the progress that you've described during this call. The country has made great progress implementing the SUN movement's recommendations and launching an effective campaign against malnutrition. The essential elements, the networks, platform, and a national plan are all in place. We now need the commitment carry out that campaign, as well as sufficient funding, to demonstrate the impact on beneficiaries. That is how we measure success: the impact on beneficiaries in communities across the country. So I think everything is in place. The commitment of the SUN movement remains strong. There are 57 countries that have achieved varying levels of progress. But as we've noted, the movement's strength is that it allows people in different countries to share their experiences. Burkina Faso has clearly made progress, and we believe that it can serve as an example to other nations. Those countries benefit from all the things we've discussed here, and achieve the same level of progress as Burkina Faso. Thank you.
AY: Thank you, Mr. Nicolas. Of course we need to encourage others in the movement to share their experiences. I'd therefore like to recall that ENN, the Emergency Nutrition Network, is actively supporting the SUN movement in various countries. We encourage people from ENN and SUN to connect and contribute their experiences. Bertine Ouaro, Maimouna Guero, and Nicolas Bidault: thank you again for sharing your experiences coordinating between REACH and the SUN movement to improve nutrition in Burkina Faso. I wish you every future success, and I hope to continue following your work. I'd also like to thank our audience for listening to this, which is part of a series started by ENN improve our multimedia site and disseminate knowledge. We always look forward to receiving your input and learning about your experiences as you strive to improve nutrition. If you have questions, please email at the firstname.lastname@example.org, or visit our website, www.ennonline.net. Thank you, and good day.
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LIRE CE BLOG EN FRANCAIS At the beginning of this year, I attended a Nutrition International (NI) mission in the village of Amadou Bellinaoude-Santhiago, in the Kolda region...
Reference this page
ENN (2017). Podcast transcript –The Role of the REACH initiative in the implementation of SUN in Burkina Faso. www.ennonline.net/podcasttranscripttheroleofthereachinitiativeintheimplementationofsuninburkinafaso