Advocacy from Eritrea: working with WFP
By Hassan Taifour
Hassan Taifour is the Emergency Response Nutritionist for SC(UK). He graduated from the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum in 1985 and completed his nutrition Masters in LSHTM in 1991. Hassan worked for NGOs, UNICEF and the Sudanese Ministry of Health. He has worked in emergency situations in Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea. This article arises from experiences with Save the Children UK in Eritrea.
Child being weighed during a nutrition survey. Gash barka region Eritrea Dec.2001
Save the Children UK have worked in Eritrea since 1957 and in 1992 a country office was established. Between 1992-98 SC UK were involved in a wide variety of activities focusing on primary health-care supply and support, emergency drug supply, immunisation and malaria control.
When war broke out on May 12, 2000 all routine SC UK programmes were suspended so that resources could be focused on the more acute nutritional needs of displaced women and children. The majority of IDP camps which emerged in Gash Barka and Debub regions in Eritrea were formed after the outbreak of fighting in May 2000, although a few had already sprung up between 1998-1999.
In response to the emergency, nine feeding centres were established by SC UK in six of the Gash Barka IDP camps.
|Camp||Approx Population||No of Feeding Centres|
|Sheilab (Expellees from Ethiopia)||8,000||1|
By June 2001 the number of malnourished children had fallen to less than 30 children per feeding centre. As a result the camp feeding programmes were closed and the focus switched to nutritional surveillance of the returning population. Three anthropometric nutrition surveys were carried out between July and December 2001. In addition morbidity, nutrition surveillance (weight and height of children under 110 cm were measured on a monthly basis by the ministry of health clinic staff) and daily energy intake data1 were collected for the same period as part of the ongoing SC UK nutritional surveillance system.
Although monthly growth monitoring data were available, these were considered unreliable because the coverage was too low to provide a representative picture for the under five population. Before the outbreak of conflict in May 2000, growth monitoring data were collected (weight for height) in conjunction with distribution of a supplementary ration in the IDP camps. After May the distribution ceased and attendance for monthly nutrition surveillance fell to less than 20%.
Major finding of nutritional surveys and nutritional surveillance
The nutrition surveys of the returning population revealed a marked deterioration in the nutritional status of children under five years. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition significantly increased from 8% in August to 14% in December. The increase appeared to be associated with inadequate caloric intake and high morbidity rates (fever (26%) and ARI (26%)).
|Date||Global Malnutrition rate||Confidence Interval|
|August 2001||8.0%||5.5% - 10.5%|
|October 2001||11.6%||8.6% - 14.6%|
|December 2001||14.0%||10.7% - 17.1%|
Daily energy intake and morbidity data based on monthly nutritional surveillance
Community areas included in SC UK surveillance were divided into a series of sub-zones. SC UK nutrition surveillance teams visited at least three villages in each sub-zone on a monthly basis. Five families were interviewed to obtain energy consumption data for the previous two weeks. The calorific value of all food consumed (including the WFP ration) was then calculated resulting in an estimate of average caloric intake for each family. From the average of the five families a village average value was generated. Results were then extrapolated to the whole sub-zone.
The tables on the left summarise monthly nutritional surveillance data collected in the IDP camps and sub-zones by SC UK.
In all three sub-zones, caloric intake steadily fell throughout the pre-harvest period between July and October. During this time, calorific consumption never reached the recommended minimum of 2100 calories/person/day. In October (the peak of the hunger period), energy consumption declined to the lowest level, with average intake ranging between 1451 - 1654 calories per person per day. In terms of morbidity, prevalence of fever and acute respiratory infections peaked in October as the night temperatures usually drop significantly during this time and there were also 'pockets' of malaria.
|Prevalence of fever||0.9%||3.5%||3.1%||14.0%||6.7%|
|Prevalence of ARI||3.2%||4.0%||4.7%||12.1%||7.5%|
|Malnutrition from Nutrition Surveillance (N.S.) Sites||8.5%||1.9%||5.3%||3.4%||0.8%|
|Calorie intake (Kcal/person/day)||2049||1991||1884||1451||1900|
|Prevalence of fever||7.5%||14.9%||9.0%||3.2%||3.9%|
|Prevalence of ARI||7.7%||12.6%||5.5%||8.7%||7.0%|
|Malnutrition from N.S. sites||5.7%||4.3%||3.5%||6.5%||4.8%|
|Calorie intake (Kcal/person/day)||2004||1914||1837||1555||1654|
|Prevalence of fever||2.0%||3.1%||3.7%||8.7%||3.6%|
|Prevalence of ARI||3.9%||3.7%||2.8%||13.4%||5.0%|
|Malnutrition from N.S. sites||2.2%||1.9%||4.4%||5.2%||1.1%|
|Calorie intake (Kcal/person/day)||1799||1778||1698||1654||1801|
|The IDP camps (Ade Keshi, Korokon and Sheilab)|
|Prevalence of fever||2.2%||2.5%||2.2%||4.7%||4.4%|
|Prevalence of ARI||1.1%||1.1%||1.3%||4.0%||5.0%|
|Malnutrition from N.S. sites||3.2%||3.4%||5.2%||4.0%||4.0%|
|Calorie intake (Kcal/person/day)||1869||1955||1984||1661||2031|
|Calorie intake (Kcal/person/day)|
"SC UK nutrition surveillance teams visited at least three villages in each subzone monthly"
An inadequate general food ration and high morbidity rates for fevers and ARI were considered by SC UK to be the main contributing factors to this decline in nutritional status of the returning population.
Following the October survey findings, SC UK convened a co-ordination meeting which included all NGOs operating in the nutrition and food sector, UN agencies (WFP, UNICEF, OCHA) the Ministry of Health and the Eritrean Relief and Rehabilitation Commission. The main issue raised at the meeting was the perceived inadequacy of the WFP ration. The WFP general ration had been reduced from 100% to 60% in June 2001, in anticipation of a good harvest. However most crops 'dried out' and produced very little. Increased morbidity, rather than ration size, was initially suggested by WFP as the more likely reason for the observed decline in nutritional status. However, SC UK used the nutrition surveillance data to demonstrate the inadequate average daily energy intake and advocated for a return to a full general ration of 2100 Kcal per person/day. After a number of meetings and consultations, WFP were satisfied with the evidence from the data and agreed to increase the general ration to 100% from December 2001.
Gash Barka region,Eritrea Dec 2001
Currently, WFP is maintaining a 100% general ration while mobile clinics are covering almost all sub-zone villages without health stations. Access to health care has now increased from 78.6% in October to 99.8% in December. It is hoped that this level of programming will help prevent a further decline in nutritional status.
Based on more recent findings in the December nutrition survey, SC UK has made a number of additional recommendations in its most recent report. These include:
- WFP/ERREC should resume the distribution of dry supplementary rations of blended food to all children under five in the area.
- An NGO with sufficient capacity should implement a targeted supplementary feeding programme for all malnourished individuals (children and women).
- Nutritional surveys should continue to be implemented at three monthly intervals to monitor the nutritional status of the underfive population and to inform any nutrition interventions. As SC UK has closed their programme in Eritrea, this should become the responsibility of the MoH with assistance from UN and other voluntary agencies.
- Full general ration distributions (2100 Kcal/person /day) should continue at least until the harvest of the following year (November/ December 2002).
- Ensure that there is good access to health care for all villagers by providing mobile clinics for villages that do not have health facilities.
- A food security monitoring system should be established. Ideally, this should be a joint initiative involving donors, UN agencies, NGOs and governmental departments (e.g. Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture).
This experience has demonstrated that the provision of timely, reliable, and accurate field data can be used to advocate for programme change. In this instance an effective and trusting working relationship was established with WFP. A key element of effective advocacy is the field presence of experienced and dedicated staff who can make, and support clear recommendations.
For further information contact Hassan Taifour at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Below are comments on the above article from Salem Elhadji and Jennifer Bitonde, WFP Eritrea
The nutrition surveys conducted by SCFUK and MOH (Ministry of Health) in 2001, have been useful in getting an overview of the nutrition status in the surveyed sub-regions in Gash Barka region.
Based on WFP experiences in the Eritrea we would like to make the following comments about the article.
In assessing the current situation, the SC-UK article emphasizes inadequate general rations and high levels of morbidity as the main contributory factors to the decline in nutritional status of the returning population but leaves out other factors such as access to water, which are mentioned in the main nutrition survey report of December 2001.
A recent rapid assessment of the main causes of malnutrition in Asmat and Hagaz sub-regions in Anseba conducted by MOH, ERREC (Eritrean Relief and Refugee Commission) and WFP identified the following contributory factors to high levels of malnutrition.
- Lack of diversified food and the fact that the majority of caretakers are not aware of the importance of diversifying the meals.
- Health and hygiene factors and access to clean and safe water: At the household level, water was not kept safely and none of the respondents boiled water for drinking. Sanitary facilities were lacking and the majority of children defecated in the compound and/or open field, which in most cases exposed them to infections and diarrhoea.
- Social and care environment: Prolonged exclusive breast-feeding without complimentary food and poor feeding practices had links to the nutrition status of the children. Most caretakers with malnourished children did not participate in the childcare education provided at the health facilities and as a result many were unaware of the best feeding practices for their children. The assessment also found that food was not shared equally at the household level. The male head of household received the best food (in quality and quantity) at the expense of the children. The lack of basic literacy levels among caretakers was an impediment to accessing information.
A nutrition survey conducted by COSV in Mensura, Agordat and Logo Anseba sub-regions in Gash Barka in December 2001,showed a prevalence global malnutrition of 12.8%. The report identifies morbidity and water usage as factors that need to be addressed to improve the nutrition status of the target population. COSV survey report also recommends targeted supplementary feeding programme, improvement and provision of clean and safe water and promotion of intensive growth monitoring activities at the village level.
The SCF nutrition report confirmed that all 590 out of 591 household surveyed received WFP general rations. The nutritional survey data that are described in the SC-UK article do not justify the need for a blanket supplementary feeding programme. Blanket supplementary feeding is recommended when global malnutrition prevalence exceeds 15% or where the general food rations are grossly inadequate, i.e. less than 1500 kcal/person/day. It is more appropriate to recommend a targeted supplementary feeding programme for malnourished children under 5 years old linked with growth monitoring promotion.
The SC UK advocacy article omits mention of a number of other factors which contribute to malnutrition in Eritrea. For instance, the SC UK nutrition survey (December 2001) reports that global and severe malnutrition are higher amongst children of 2 and 3 years because this is the time when they are introduced to weaning food and are at greater risk of infections. The report further mentions that the percentage of malnourished children within female headed households was slightly higher possibly due to the fact that the mothers do not have enough time to look after their children as they are involved in public work to support their families. Hence there is limited health and social care. The report recommends strengthening nutrition and health knowledge of mothers and caretakers through training the MOH staff, providing sufficient water and a full general ration.
WFP provides a full general ration (2100 kcals) to the in-camp population because this group has no other source of food/income. The 'out of camp' population (host communities) receive a 60% ration because they have access to food through farming, and other source of income. WFP has been and is still providing food to 81% of the total 'out of camp' population in the three sub-regions surveyed by SC-UK. Based on recommendations from WFP field offices, agricultural crop production data from MOA and nutrition surveys undertaken by different NGOs in Gash Barka and Anseba, WFP provided full general ration to the drought affected vulnerable groups, returnees, and host communities in December 01 and January 02.
Field Exchange would like to point out that at the end of the draft article submitted initially by Hassan Talfour there were a number of additional recommendations, two of which related to the above comments in the post-script. A number of these recommendations were edited out (with the permission of the author) in order to keep the focus of the article on food security and advocacy. The two recommendations relevant to the above postscript were:
- Provide sufficient water: at least 15 litres/person/day, (Sphere minimum standard) and distribute water containers so that every household has enough water storage equipment.
- Strengthen nutrition and health knowledge by training the MoH staff as trainers on simple practices who in turn will then train the mothers and carers of their villages. (Eds.)
1While it is best practice to calculate energy intake based on a 24 hour recall, we found through field work that it was easier to find out the quantities of food that were purchased / consumed by a household over a two week period.We recognise that this will not be accurate intake data for individuals but would argue that it provides an indication of sources and access to food over the period in question.
More like this
Summary of evaluations1 SC UK survey team in Eriteria SC UK recently evaluated a number of emergency nutrition responses undertaken in Eritrea (Gash Barka and Northern Red...
By Dianne Stevens, Patricia Araru and Buwa Dragudi, Save the Children (UK) Dianne Stevens is a nutritionist with a Masters in Public Health and Tropical Medicine. She has been...
FEX: Scurvy outbreak among South Sudanese adolescents and young men – Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya, 2017-2018
View this article as a pdf Read the postscript to this article here. Summary of research1 Location: Kenya What we know: Refugee populations dependent on food assistance are...
By Aranka Anema Aranka Anema has a background in medical anthropology. She is currently working with MSF-Holland as Medical Editor and has been involved with the Nutrition...
By Severin Kabakama Dr Severin Kabakama (MD Dar) is Assistant Project Officer (Early Child Development) in the Western Tanzania Refugee Program, UNICEF Kasulu Field Office. He...
By Regine Kopplow, Concern Worldwide Regine Kopplow is a senior nutrition advisor with Concern, working in Afghanistan since April 2002. Previous field experiences include...
By Jeremy Shoham, ENN Households headed by the elderly may be vulnerable This article was written based on a WFP consultation to Malawi in February 2005. The WFP Malawi...
By Dominique Brunet and Frances Mason Dominique Brunet is currently working as a nutritionist with SC UK. She has 10 years of experience with SC UK, ACF and Oxfam. This...
By Allison Oman Allison is the Senior Regional Nutrition and Food Security Officer for UNHCR based in Nairobi, Kenya. She works with countries in the region to give technical...
By Mark Wright Mark Wright was the Save the Children Programme Officer for Southern Africa from November 2000 to November 2002. This article details Save the Children UK's...
By Kate Sadler (Valid International) and Anna Taylor (SC-UK) People waiting at a clinic in Darfur, North Sudan. Child eating plumpynut® in Darfur, North Sudan. North Darfur...
Milton Tectonidis By Isabelle Defourny, Emmanuel Drouhin, Mego Terzian, Mercedes Tatay, Johanne Sekkenes and Milton Tectonidis Emmanuel Drouhin is the Niger Desk Officer,...
By Mutinta Nseluke-Hambayi Mutinta Nseluke-Hambayi is a nutritionist who has been working as a Nutrition Emergency Officer for the past 3 years, supporting all WFP emergency...
FEX: Scurvy outbreak and erosion of livelihoods masked by low wasting levels in drought affected Northern Afghanistan
By Fitsum Assefa Signs of scurvy: blackness of the legs indicative of haemorrhage Fitsum Assefa is a nutritionist who recently joined Save the Children, United States (SC/US)...
FEX: Issue 15 Editorial
Two of the field articles in this issue of Field Exchange address to varying degrees the subject of advocacy. The dictionary definition of the word is 'recommendation' or...
Is there any evidence based research to show the correlation between maternal nutrition and breast milk volume? As far as I am aware, no such correlation has been found. It is...
Women selling food in South Sudan AbuSaleh A, 1993. Cost effectiveness of feeding programs in Hartisheik A camp, for Somali refugees, Ethiopia 1988-1989. Unpublished report...
By Anna Taylor SCF-UK Update on the current situation The last edition of Field Exchange included an account of discussions on how food aid should be targeted in the siege...
FEX: A Review of the advances and challenges in nutrition in conflicts and crises over the last 20 years
Abbreviated version of unpublished paper Food distribution at the ICRC kitchen in Tonj. By Frances Mason and Anna Taylor This paper is a shortened version of the complete...
Summary of study1 Bangladesh has the fourth-highest number of children (approximately 600,000 at any one time) suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in the world....
Reference this page
Hassan Taifour, Postscript - Salem Elhadji and Jennifer Bitonde (). Advocacy from Eritrea: working with WFP. Field Exchange 15, April 2002. p22. www.ennonline.net/fex/15/advocacy