Menu ENN Search

Trends in malnutrition prevalence and mortality

The May 2010 issue of the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CE-DAT) publication, CE-DAT Scene1 includes a summary of the 2009 trends in malnutrition and mortality. These make interesting reading.

Prevalence of global acute malnutrition

Out of 99 settings in Africa and Asia for which data from both 2008 and 2009 were available, 48% showed an increase in the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) and 42% show a decrease. Kenya and Sudan, in particular, were countries where the nutritional situation worsened considerably. The Mandera district in Kenya's North Eastern province had the highest reported prevalence's of GAM (31.9% and 31.3%). Compared to 2008 figures, this represented an increase in of the order of 5 to 10%. In the east of the district, at the border with Ethiopia and Somalia, the situation improved with GAM levels decreasing from between 26 and 27%, to 20%.

In Sudan, the nutritional deterioration was less substantial than in Kenya. Here, the increase in GAM prevalence was generally less than 5%. An exception was Aweil East county in North Bahr-El-Ghazal, where GAM prevalence almost doubled compared to 2007, going from 16% to 29.5%. Balliet county in Upper Nile, on the other hand, experienced a considerable decrease in prevalence from 28.8% in 2008 to 22% in 2009.

In 2009, the GAM prevalence in two refugee camps in Bangladesh were at their highest levels since 2005 and the second highest since 1998. Compared to 2008, the prevalence doubled from 8.5% and 9.2% for Kutupalong and Nayapara, respectively, to 17.9% in both camps in 2009.

More positive developments were seen in Somalia. The Somaliland regions of Awdal, Togdheer and Woqooyi Galbeed halved the prevalence of GAM from around 20% to about 10%. In general, the situation in Puntland also improved, with the exception of its capital city Garowe. Here, GAM prevalence among the internally displaced population (IDPs) increased from 21.2% in 2008 to 24% in 2009. Regions south of Mogadishu reported a slight increase in malnutrition prevalence.

Surveys conducted in the north of Cote d'Ivoire showed a decrease in GAM prevalence from around 17% to values between 6.8% and 8.5%.

Crude mortality rate

Of the 48 locations for which crude mortality rates (CMR) from both 2008 and 2009 were available, 44% had higher rates in 2009 than in 2008 while 40% had lower rates. Seventeen percent remained unchanged.

Similarly to malnutrition prevalence patterns, the North Eastern province of Kenya had the greatest deterioration in CMR.

Overall, rates in 2009 were about twice as high as the rates of 2008. Although all rates were below the emergency threshold of 1 death/10,000/year, the trend is alarming.

Sudan also showed some alarming CMR patterns, especially in the Kurmuk area, Blue Nile State. The CMR in 2009 was 1.3/10,000/day, compared to 0.9/10,000/day in 2008. The situation has been alarming for several years and is mainly due to the high number of diarrhoea-related deaths, indicating a need for more water, sanitation and hygiene assistance projects.

Surveys from North Bahr-El-Ghazal also reported increasing CMRs from 0.2/10,000/day in 2008 to 0.7/10,000/day in 2009, the highest rates since 2003. Finally, Twic area in Warab state had a 2009 CMR of 0.9/10,000/day, 0.3 higher than in 2008 and just below the emergency threshold.

Positive trends were reported in Somalia. Most of the locations had lower CMRs in 2009 compared to 2008. Noteworthy are the improvements in the Awdal region (0.5 v 1.1), Bossaso city (0.4 v 1) and Togdheer (0.6 v 1.1). The Shabelle and Juba regions around Mogadishu, however, remain of concern with mortality rates often increasing and almost all above the emergency threshold.

Under five mortality rate

Fifty one percent of the locations (25/55) reporting under five mortality rates (U5MR) in 2008 and 2009 had lower U5MRs in 2009 compared to 2008. For three locations, 2009 rates were equal to those of 2008, and the remaining locations had higher figures in 2009.

Unlike CMR, Kenya did not show a particularly alarming trend. Areas where U5MR was elevated in 2008 had lower rates in 2009 and those areas where U5MR increased in 2009 remained within an acceptable range. The highest reported value was 1.5/10,000/day in the northern part of Mandera district, North Eastern province.

In Sudan, U5MR patterns followed the CMR trends. Main areas of concern are Kurmuk area, Blue Nile state (2.8) and Twick area, Warab state (2.3), as well as Aweil north and Aweil West in North Bahr-El-Ghazal, where U5MR increased from 0.3/10,000/day in 2008 to 1.2/10,000/day in 2009.

The biggest improvement is again in Somalia where, except for Gedo, Jubaland and Lower Shabelle, all locations had U5MRs below the emergency threshold. Gedo had the highest U5MR with 2.7/10,000/day, a doubling compared to 2008. Finally, a survey conducted among displaced people in Garowe city in Nugaal region reported an important increase from 0.3 in 2008 to 1.3/10,000/day in 2009.

Show footnotes

1CE DAT SCENE (2010). Newsletter 13 - May 2010

More like this

en-net: MUAC and Mortality relationship

I have found a nutritional survey report conducted in Sudan with GAM of 27.0% and SAM of 7.5%, while the U5MR IS 1.19/10 000/day using ENA for SMART software. Does this result...

en-net: Thresholds for CMAM response based on SAM prevalence

I am wondering if anyone is using or has come across any guidelines (perhaps in draft form) for the level of SAM prevalence (in NCHS or new WHO standards) that indicate a...

FEX: Analysis of trends in SMART nutrition survey data from South Sudan between 2004 and 2016

View this article as a pdf Research snapshot1 Despite decades of nutrition and health interventions, emergency levels of global acute malnutrition (GAM) persist in former...

FEX: Sudan in Crisis

Some people and organisations are questioning the severity of the situation in South Sudan. As an organisation working in 7 locations in Bahr-El-Gazal, Médecins Sans...

FEX: Early results from urban SAM treatment programme in Chad

By Aimé Tamberi Makiméré, Emilienne Soubeiga, Deo Katsuva Sibongwere and Geza Harczi Aimé Tamberi Makiméré is the President of the Board of Directors, Alerte Santé, a Chad...

en-net: Confusion over CDR and U5DR sample size calculation

Hi, I recall reading in SMART manual that if U5DR is one of the objectives of the surveys apart from CDR a separate sample size calculation should be done for U5DR. However,...

en-net: Concern Worldwide is looking for a Nutrition Survey Consultant in Aweil, Southern Sudan

Concern Worldwide/South Sudan Programme Terms of Reference for Consultant to carry out nutritional survey in Aweil North and West Counties, Northern Bahr el Ghazal State, South...

FEX: Review of nutrition and mortality indicators for Integrated Phase Classification

Summary of technical review1 The Integrated Phase Classification (IPC) Technical Working Group and the Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN) Task Force on Assessment,...

en-net: Relationship between Mortality and Acute Malnutrition

In most surveys I have seen, there is a positive linear relationship between CMR/U5MR and acute malnutrition. Also, the report...

FEX: Emergency intervention priorities from child wasting and mortality in the Horn of Africa

Summary of review1 Arecent study set out to assess criteria for emergency intervention decision-making in the Horn of Africa based on associations between child wasting and...

FEX: From the editor

An aerial view of Darfur, Sudan The role of data and analytical tools in guiding and evaluating emergency programming figures strongly in this issue of Field Exchange. There...

FEX: A fragile situation in Sudan: review of the 2001 nutritional situation

By Mutinta Nseluke-Hambayi Mutinta Nseluke-Hambayi is a nutritionist who has been working as a Nutrition Emergency Officer for the past 3 years, supporting all WFP emergency...

FEX: A method for estimating mortality rates using previous birth history

By Mark Myatt, Anna Taylor and W. Courtland Robinson Mark Myatt is a consultant epidemiologist and senior fellow at University College London. His areas of expertise include...

FEX: Improved surveillance prevents excess mortality: the Gode experience

Summary of published paper1 A study on the epidemiology of the famine in Gode district of Ethiopia has just been published. The primary objectives of the study (which was...

FEX: Seasonal Trends in Pastoral Malnutrition in Somalia

By Louise Masese Mwirigi and Joseph Waweru Ms Lousie Masese-Mwirigi works as a Nutrition Analyst for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UNFAO) - Food...

FEX: South Sudan nutrition: Overcoming the challenges of nutrition information systems

The health sector in South Sudan, the youngest nation in Africa, has been growing from strength to strength amid insecurity and emergencies that have affected the general...

FEX: World Vision programme for severe acute malnutrition in SNNPR

By Dr. Sisay Sinamo and Dr. Gedion Tefera Dr Sisay Sinamo is Coordinator for the Health and Nutrition Coordination Unit with World Vision Ethiopia. A medical graduate from...

en-net: Concern seeking consultant to evaluate South Sudan nutrition programme

Draft Terms of Reference for post project Evaluation of ECHO supported ‘Provision of Effective and Integrated Nutrition Care for Children Under Five Years’ project in Aweil...

FEX: Using care groups in emergencies in South Sudan

By Peter Ndungu and Julie Tanaka View this article as a pdf Peter Ndungu is a Nutrition Programme Manager with Samaritan's Purse South Sudan. He manages the Blanket and...

FEX: WFP Southern Sector OLS Monthly Report January 1999

Highlights During January 1999, WFP provided 7,099 MT of relief food to 1,050,310 targeted beneficiaries in Southern Sector OLS. The tonnage distributed represents a 23%...


Reference this page

Trends in malnutrition prevalence and mortality. Field Exchange 39, September 2010. p29.



Download to a citation manager

The below files can be imported into your preferred reference management tool, most tools will allow you to manually import the RIS file. Endnote may required a specific filter file to be used.