Tackling the double burden of malnutrition in low and middle-income countries: response of the international community
By Alexandra Rutishauser-Perera
Alexandra Rutishauser-Perera is a Humanitarian Nutrition Adviser with Save the Children. She has ten years of experience of public health nutrition with several international non-governmental organisations in West and East Africa and South-East Asia.
This article summarises key findings of a Masters dissertation undertaken by the author in 2015. The author acknowledges her MSc supervisor, Dr Cecile Knai, for her support.
What we know: The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) affects many low and middle-income countries (LMICs); there is growing recognition of the emerging problem.
What this article adds: A recent study assessed existing activities, barriers and enablers of 19 international organisations in tackling the DBM in LMICs. Most work has been at policy level which has not yet translated into interventions. Ten agencies were not implementing related programming; barriers included lack of funding, obesity prevention not a life-saving intervention, lack of agency expertise, lack of guidelines and lack of impact evaluation. Shortage of evidenced interventions and donor engagement/funding particularly limit progress. Most respondents favoured using existing international fora to facilitate necessary information exchange. Recommendations include systematically including overweight/obesity data in nutrition surveys; researching the impact of acute malnutrition treatment/rapid weight gain on chronic disease; and monitoring possible conflicts of interests in public/private partnerships.
The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) affects many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The rate of increase of childhood overweight and obesity in LMICs is more than 30% higher than in developed countries (Wang & Lobstein, 2006) and there are more overweight and obese children in LMICs than in high-income countries (WHO 2015). Physical inactivity and unhealthy diet characterise socio-economic transition (Boutayeb & Boutayeb, 2005). Additionally, the emergence of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NR-NCDs) may be compounded by problems of undernutrition, which themselves increase the risk of developing NCDs in adulthood (Darnton-Hill et al, 2004). A child who grows inadequately can be under-nourished in infancy but become overweight or obese later in life if the individual consumes energy-dense foods in excess. The same household can sometimes comprise both an under-nourished child and an overweight adult (WHO, undated). Childhood obesity increases the child’s risk of mental and physical health effects, which most LMICs are not equipped to treat ((Boutayeb & Boutayeb, 2005), placing an additional burden on already fragile health systems.
There is growing international recognition of the emerging problem of overweight and obesity in LMICs. However, in practice NGO-led nutrition programming focuses on alleviating wasting and stunting, with very few tackling the problem of obesity (INFPR, 2014).
A recent study assessed existing activities of international organisations and UN agencies in tackling the DBM in LMICs, as well as evaluating the barriers and enablers they face in doing so.
A mix of purposive and snowball sampling was used to identify participants for semi-structured interviews. The interview transcripts were analysed using a framework analysis (Ritchie & Spencer, 1993). Participants (representatives of international organisations involved in agency nutrition strategy development) were identified from International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) participants, those engaged in the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement and researcher contacts. Nineteen interviews were conducted (only one per agency).
All participants were senior staff at agency headquarters categorised in five programming sectors: Children (n=5), Food Security (n=1), Health (n=8), Nutrition (n=4) and Relief (n=1), although most had overlap. Ten organisations had more than 20 years of experience. The majority of organisations implemented programmes (n=14); four were policy-based (three UN agencies) and one was an advocacy organisation. Ten agencies were working in both developed and developing countries; nine in developing countries only.
Nine (47%) of the organisations did not integrate any obesity or NR-NCD related activities within their work. Three agencies (16%) integrated the theme of DBM within health education and two agencies (11%) did so within social and behaviour-change activities. Four agencies (26%) had a policy on DBM. Two organisations (10%) had no plans to address DBM, and seven (37%) had only just begun internal conversations about obesity prevention and NR-NCD programmes.
Most work to date has been at a policy level and was conducted by UN agencies to address malnutrition in all its forms, mainly in response to the nutritional landscape faced in the Syria crisis (UNICEF, 2014; (Dolan et al, 2014). However, very few DBM interventions were identified amongst implementing agency respondents. Two programme examples were: a ‘One Goal’ programme led by World Vision in India (Edwards, 2015) and the ‘Double Fardeau of Nutrition’ (DFN) Project in West Africa, partly supported by Helen Keller International (Pôle Francophone Africain, 2015).
Reported barriers to including DBM activities were lack of funding (n=13), the fact that obesity prevention was not a lifesaving intervention (n=12), lack of agency expertise (n=11), lack of guidelines and impact evaluation on prevention of obesity (n=9), and lack of specific disaggregated data (n=7). Some found it difficult to judge whether DBM was a health or nutrition problem.
The most commonly cited enabler for DBM programing was having more evidence (n=12). The types of evidence needed included disaggregated data on prevalence, the determinants of obesity, evidence-based programming on prevention of obesity, and cost effectiveness of activities targeting overnutrition. Addressing micronutrient deficiencies by focusing on food quality and higher intake of fruits and vegetables (e.g. school feeding in South Africa), or treating undernutrition (which at a young age can predispose to obesity later in life) were suggested as entry points to develop activities on DBM (n=7). Other factors that contributed to decisions to become involved in DBM programming included existence of a donor strategy to address DBM (n=6), being operational in a country affected by obesity (n=4), obesity prevention included in the targets of the World Health Assembly (WHA) (n=3), and internal expertise (n=2).
Ten participants felt it was not necessary to create a new forum to exchange information on DBM. Only three respondents favoured development of a DBM-specific forum. The top five forums suggested were the SUN Movement (n=7), ICN (n=5), ENN (n=5), UNSCN (n=5), and the Committee on World Food Security (CFS).
Potential negative consequences of current nutrition programming on DBM were: promotion of energy-dense food (n=8); public/private or NGO/private partnerships (n=7); and rapid catch-up growth in infancy for underweight infants or young children potentially increasing childhood obesity prevalence (n=4). Seven participants suggested ways to mitigate negative consequences, including more systematic quantitative analysis of those potential risks; concentrating on effective activities such as breastfeeding; having a more food-based approach regarding the prevention of undernutrition; and including nutrition and counselling in all food security and nutrition programmes.
Development assistance providers have started to include prevention and management of NCDs in their programme activities. However the scope of these interventions is still limited geographically and not integrated into nutrition programming. The US ASSIST project still focuses on Europe and Central Asia, with only a few NCD projects in India and Uganda (USAID).The UK Department for International Development (DFID) is exceptional in that it includes commitment to prevent and treat the four major NCDs (cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes) in its 2010-2015 policy.
Despite global improvement in reporting the prevalence of overweight/obesity in different age groups, the data reported are still national-level only (Global Nutrition Report, Malnutrition Mapping Project) (INFPR, 2014; GAIN 2015). The international guidelines on nutrition surveys do not include indicators on overweight/obesity (AAH, 2006). Additionally, there is also a lack of consensus on how to define overweight/obesity in childhood and adolescence (Poskitt, 2009). Data on the economic consequences of obesity in adults in high-income countries are now well reported, but concentrate mostly on healthcare expenditure; the consequences of childhood obesity are almost never mentioned (Bhutta et al, 2008).
Many believe that the SUN Movement provides an opportunity to address the DBM. However, an external evaluation of the 2014 SUN movement suggested that the movement might dilute its advocacy if it stops focusing solely on undernutrition.
ICN2 focused on the problems of overweight, obesity and undernutrition. However, the timing of the event limits its utility for timely exchange of information. The Committee on World Food Security (CFS), an intergovernmental body created to serve as a forum for review and follow up of food security policies, has agreed to integrate the problem of overweight and obesity into its agenda (FAO, 2015). The CFS is interlinked with the UN Standing Committee on Nutrition (UNSCN), which connects UN agencies and partners working on nutrition and food policy. The UNSCN has a dedicated section on Nutrition and NCDs (UN 2015), but funding issues seem to impede its scope of work (WPHNA 2011).
Among the most cited forums in the study, ENN is the most used by field nutrition workers. Since its special edition of Field Exchange on the Syria response in March 2015, ENN now includes articles on the double burden of malnutrition in its communications (Dolan et al, 2014).
The potential for negative consequences of prevention and treatment programmes for undernutrition on childhood obesity are reflected in the literature. Examples include:
- Promotion of sweet, energy-dense products may send misleading messages to parents as well as habituate children’s tastes for sugar-rich and calorie dense foods (GIFA 2014).
- Rapid catch-up growth may lead to obesity, rather than increase the height of children, especially when used in prevention (WPHNA; Gupte 2013).
- Action Contre la Faim argues that the potential risk of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) leading to obesity needs to be further researched, but will continue to use RUTF to treat SAM until the risk is verified (ACF 2012).
The need to evaluate those risks objectively in field programmes persists.
An increase in public/private partnerships and inherent risks to public health are also concerns. The Lancet series on the global obesity pandemic noted: “Governments and international organisations such as the UN need to provide global leadership on these issues and not abdicate them to the private sector” (Swinburn et al, 2013). A positive example of private sector engagement was given in feedback, noting that not all public-private partnerships are the same. Actors working in the field of nutrition request more transparency and monitoring of those partnerships in order to be able to “maximise benefits and minimise risks” (Kraak et al, 2012).
Conclusion and recommendations
This study identified that, despite increased interest among international organisations and UN policy development on prevention of obesity and NCDs, there is an intervention gap in LMICs in catering for the DBM. Lack of donor engagement/funding and lack of evidenced interventions limit progress. There are concerns regarding consequences of current undernutrition treatment programmes for future NCD burden. Key recommendations emerging from this study include:
1. The collection and reporting of childhood and maternal overweight/obesity data should be systematically included in all nutrition surveys;
2. Advocacy for the inclusion of the WHA target on childhood obesity in the SDGs is needed;
3. Epidemiological and operational information on DBM should be integrated into existing international nutrition forums, and particularly more systematically within the SUN movement;
4. More research is needed on the impact of the promotion of RUTF and rapid weight gain in acute malnutrition treatment programmes; and
5. Greater monitoring of possible conflicts of interests in public/private partnerships is required.
Further research, involving a full mapping of DBM activities of international organisations and an exploration of operational evidence on prevention of obesity in LMICs, has the potential to contribute to the halt in the rise of diabetes and obesity as recommended in the WHA target. The link between undernutrition and overnutrition may also be an entry point to advocating with donors to add the DBM to their development agenda.
For more information, contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Watch Alexandra Rutishauser-Perera’s talk on this topic at the TEDx LSHTM: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7AG-DvobHE
AAH. Action Against Hunger. Measuring Mortality,Nutritional Status, and Food Security in Crisis Situations: SMART Methodology. Version 1, 2006.
ACF 2012. Putting nutrition products in their place: ACF position paper. Field Exchange. January 2012;Volume 42:p57.
Bhutta ZA, Ahmed T, Black RE, Cousens S, Dewey K, Giugliani E, et al. What works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival. The Lancet 2008.371(9610):417-40.
Boutayeb A and Boutayeb S. The burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2005;4(1):2.
Darnton-Hill I, Nishida C, James WP. A life course approach to diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7(1a):101-21.
Dolan C, McGrath M, Shoham J. ENN’s perspective on the nutrition response in the Syria crisis. Field Exchange. November 2014 (Issue 48).
Edwards E. CHNCA, World Vision International. ‘One Goal’ to end malnutrition in Asia - using the power of football 2015. Available from: wvi.org/child-health-now/article/‘one-goal’-end-malnutrition-asia-using-power-football
FAO 2015. Food and Agriculture Organization, editor The 2nd International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) and Sustainable Food Systems Post-2015. Advancing Nutrition from ICN2 to post 2015, which role for CFS?; 15 October 2014; Rome.
GAIN. Malnutrition Mapping Project [cited 2015]. Available from: www.gainhealth.org/
GIFA 2014. Breastfeeding briefs [press release]. Geneva Infant Feeding Association (GIFA), an affiliate of the International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN) 2014.
Gupte S. Recent Advances in Pediatrics. Special Volume 23 - Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition: Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers Pvt. Limited; 2013.
INFPR. International Food Policy Research Institute. Global Nutrition Report 2014: Actions and Accountability to Accelerate the World’s Progress on Nutrition. Washington, DC. 2014.
Kraak VI, Harrigan PB, Lawrence M, Harrison PJ, Jackson MA, Swinburn B. Balancing the benefits and risks of public-private partnerships to address the global double burden of malnutrition. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(3):503-17.
Pôle Francophone Africain sur le double fardeau nutritionnel [cited 2015]. Available from: http://poledfn.org/
Poskitt EM. Countries in transition: underweight to obesity non-stop? Ann Trop Paediatr. 2009;29(1):1-11.
Ritchie J and Spencer L. Qualitative data analysis for applied policy reseach in analysing qualitative data. London: Routledge 1993.
Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD, McPherson K, Finegood DT, Moodie ML, et al. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. The Lancet 2011. 378(9793):804-14.
UN 2015. United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition 2015. Available from: www.unscn.org/.
UNICEF State of the World’s Children Report. 2014;20Jan.
USAID. United States Agency for International Development Assist Project. Applying Science to Strengthen and Improve Systems. [cited 2015]. Available from: www.usaidassist.org/
Wang Y and Lobstein T. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity. 2006;1(1):11-25.
WHO [undated]. World Health Organization Child Growth Standard, backgrounder 4. Available from: www.who.int
WHO 2015. World Health Organization Interim Report of the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. 2015.
WPHNA. World Public Health Nutrition Association 2011. Available from: www.wphna.org/htdocs/2011_feb_hp5_scn_crisis.htm
More like this
View this article as a pdf Lisez cet article en français ici José Lino Pacheco is Director of the Food and Nutrition Security Technical Unit, Secretary of...
View this article as a pdf Research snapshot1 The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) is the coexistence of overnutrition (overweight and obesity) alongside undernutrition...
FEX: The link between foetal and childhood nutrition and adult non-communicable disease: lessons from birth cohort studies in India
View this article as a pdf Research summary1 Location: India What we know: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rising in prevalence globally and they particularly affect...
Summary of research1 Location: Global What we know: Worldwide 'nutrition transition', including in low-middle income countries is leading to increasing consumption of...
Summary of published research1 There is growing recognition of a ‘double burden’ of malnutrition among populations in both affluent and less-affluent countries, i.e. the...
Resource: Adolescent nutrition mapping study: A global stakeholder survey of policies, research, interventions and data gaps
Executive summary Nutrition in school-aged children and adolescents can significantly impact lifelong health and wellbeing as well as national economic growth and the health...
In this fourth Global Nutrition Report (GNR), significant burdens of three key forms of malnutrition (child stunting, anaemia in women of reproductive age and overweight in...
FEX: Fertility is a key predictor of the double burden of malnutrition among women of child-bearing age in sub-Saharan Africa
View this article as a pdf Research snapshot1 Globally, countries are undergoing a nutrition transition, shifting from high rates of underweight towards growing rates of...
View this article as a pdf By Mark Manary, Donna Wegner, D Taylor Hendrixson, Rebecca Roediger, Meghan Callaghan Mark Manary is one of the world's foremost experts in...
As requested by the authors, ENN is sharing a letter sent to officials and program officers at the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2018, in response to a WHO...
FEX: Tackling non-communicable disease among Syrian refugees and vulnerable host communities in Jordan
By Loren Hyatt View this article as a pdf Loren Hyatt is the Programme Manager for International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC) in Amman, Jordan, where she oversees a...
View this article as a pdf Report Summary1 In December 2020, UNICEF published its new Nutrition Strategy, to guide the next ten years of its nutrition related activities. The...
Resource: Evaluation of maternal and child under-nutrition: Executive Summary of The Lancet Maternal and Child Nutrition Series
Also available from: http://www.thelancet.com/series/maternal-and-child-nutrition Maternal and child undernutrition, consisting of stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of...
Summary of report1 This summary was prepared by Emily Mates (ENN) who undertook the review as an independent consultant together with Tanya Khara (independent), with the...
Ambarka Youssoufane, ENN's West Africa Regional Knowledge Management Specialist, interviewed Roselyn Gabriel, Deputy Director of Food and Nutrition, Ministry of Budget and...
FEX: Adolescent nutrition mapping study: A global stakeholder survey of policies, research, interventions and data gaps
View this article as a pdf Summary of research1 Nutrition in school-aged children and adolescents can significantly impact lifelong health and wellbeing as well as the...
FEX: Contribution of six risk factors to achieving the 25x25 non-communicable disease mortality reduction target
Summary of study1 Location: Global What we know: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause more than 35 million deaths every year and account for more than half of the deaths in...
View this article as a pdf Lisez cet article en français ici Trudy Wijnhoven is a Nutrition Officer and the technical focal point for the UN Decade of Action on...
By Felix Pensulo Phiri Lisez cet article en français ici Felix Pensulo Phiri is Director of Nutrition in the Department of Nutrition, HIV and AIDS, Ministry of Health,...
News By Emily Mates, ENN Technical Director (meeting attendee) There is an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among people displaced and otherwise affected...
Reference this page
Alexandra Rutishauser-Perera (). Tackling the double burden of malnutrition in low and middle-income countries: response of the international community. Field Exchange 53, November 2016. p12. www.ennonline.net/fex/53/tacklingthedoubleburden